Hort 231 - Optional Reading for Selected Class Topics

For Exam 1
For Exam 2
For Final Exam
Required Readings

Listed below are suggested readings that cover material that relates to various topics discussed in Hort 231.

Exam 1 topic
1. Carl Linnaeus - from the Univ. of CA, Berkeley Museum of Paleontology
2. Scientific Plant Names - from Landscape Plants,  Dept. of Horticulture at Oregon State Univ.
1. Details of his life and naming system
2. Discusses how to write scientific names and cultivars and trademarked names
Helianthus annuus - from Wikipedia
Describes the movement with the sun and the history.
Leaf morphology
Vegetative Morphology - by Dr. L. Michael Hill, Bridgewater College.

About leaves.  Great information with pictures;  click on lots of links for information.
Bud morphology
1. Bud - from Wikipedia
2.  Grafting Time Lapse - video by Neil Bromhall.
1. Good summary.
2. From 15 to 30 seconds, mixed bud grows to become leaves, stems, and flowers.
California poppy
(and Double-flower)
1. California Poppy - from Wikipedia
2, What is a Double Flower? - from wiseGEEK
1.  Discusses many facts including invasiveness.
2. Thorough discussion of what a double-flower is.
Cold hardiness
1. Winter Injury of Landscape Plants in the Pacific Northwest - by R. Maleike, M. Ophardt, and S. Collman - WSU Extension Bulletin 1645
2. USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map
1. Brief description of cold hardiness, examples of problems, and suggested actions.
2. Introduction to the hardiness map and links to indicator plants.
Flower morphology
1. Reproductive Characters - from Center for the Study of Digital Libraries at Texas A&M
2. Flower Terminology - from W.P. Armstrong, Palomar College, San Marcos, CA
1. Floral structure illustration with definitions and photos of floral parts
2. Great drawings and photos showing floral parts and flower types.
Stem morphology
1. Stem Morphology - from Hort 202 at Texas A&M
2. Tree & Plant Life - video from BBC with David Attenborough

3. Twining Motion of Vines - video from sciencetrack blog.
4.  Growing Apple Tree Animation - video from GeeskeS
1. Click on Modified Stems and leaf links for more information.
2. Time-lapse shows how vines use tendrils and thorns to climb.
3. More time-lapse of vines attaching.
4.  Computer animation showing how trees get taller and thicker.
Plant juvenility and maturity
Juvenility in Plants - by David Goforth, NC Coop. Ext.
Restates some of lecture and gives different examples.

Exam 2 topic
Fall color 
Why Leaves Change Color - from The Friesner Herbarium, Bulter University.
Discusses pigments and processes involved.
Ginkgo biloba
The Ginkgo Pages - by Cor Kwant Extensive information on the ginkgo.
Genetic diversity
1. The Irish Famine - by Marjie Bloy
2. Potato Late Blight - from Oregon State University Extension
3. Dogwood Anthracnose and its Spread in the South - R.L. Anderson and J.L. Knighten - USDA Forest Service
1. Brief description of the causes.
2. Good photos of the disease that caused the Irish potato famine.
3. Describes history of dogwood anthracnose & shows injury symptoms.
Dutch elm disease
Dutch Elm Disease: Elm Tree Protection Program - Seattle Transportation
PDF brochure describing DED in Washington State.
American elm 
1. DED-resistant American Elms and Hybrids
2. Saving the American elm
1. Presents some of the strategies that have used to find resistant elms.
2. Summary of the problem of Dutch elm disease and its solution.
Chestnut blight
My Worst Enemy Chestnut Blight by S. J. Dorman
Has description of the disease and photos.  If you follow some of the links on the site, you'll see pictures of the tree.
Quaking aspen 
Aspen can be a Troublesome Tree - by Robert Cox, Colorado State Univ. Coop. Extension Summary of the problems that can arise with quaking aspen in landscape plantings.
Quaking aspen Pando clone threatened - from Deseret News
Discusses general threats to the quaking aspen plant known as the Pando clone.
Quaking aspen Tree heart attacks: Aspen clones dying - BYUNews
Video of climate change and other more specific threats to quaking aspen in the west.
Tree form responses
Human Well-Being Promoted By Trees - Virginia I. Lohr, Dept. of Hort & LA, WSU
Summary of the study we conducted on tree forms.
Human issues in hort
Benefits of Plants - Virginia I. Lohr, Dept. of Hort & LA, WSU Links to summaries of various studies we have done.
Temp control (urban temperatures)
1. Climate Change May Exacerbate Hot Cities - by D. Dixon and Climatewire, Scientific American
2. How Cities Use Parks for ... Climate Change Management - from the American Planning Association
1. Summary of the cause of the urban heat island effect and how climate change will influence it.
2. Presents 4 key points on the ways parks contribute to solving climate change problems in cities.
Temp control (trees for shade)
Tree Placement on Home Grounds - by Christopher J. Starbuck, Univ. of Missouri Article showing how to use trees for shading homes.
Temp control (seasons)
1. The  Earth's Tilt - video by Thomas G. Chasteen , Analytical Environmental Chemistry
2. Earth-Sun Applet - from Gregory Carbonne, U. of South Carolina
1. Video shows earth moving around sun to cause seasons (movement can be stopped).
2. Graphic shows angle + size of shadows at different times of the year.
Tree diversity and benefits
Melbourne's Urban Forest Strategy - from Melbourne City Council
Discusses why tree diversity is important and their 5-10-20 rule.

Final exam topic
NOTE: See all topics in previous tables
Final exam covers ALL topics
Patents & Trademarks

1. Tips - When a rose is a RoseTM - by Paul Cappiello, UKCA Adjunct Professor of Horticulture
2. Plant Patent Primer - by Barbara Campbell and James M. Weatherly, Greenhouse Grower
3. A Plant by Any Name is Not the Same - by James M. Weatherly and Barbara Campbell, GrowerTalks
1. Clear descriptions of "cultivar registration," "plant patent," and "trademark protection".
2. Discusses the benefits and requirements for plant patents.
3.  Discusses the in and outs of trademarks.
Ilex meserveae
Blue Hollies: Premier Evergreens for Northern Gardens - by Todd Boland
Describes the hybrids used to create the blue holly series.
Mahonia repens
Creeping Mahonia - Pathat the Ratgirl
Great summary of appearance, culture, use, and interesting facts (e.g. hybrids with M. aquifolium).

Virginia Lohr , Professor, E-mail: lohr@wsu.edu
Department of Horticulture
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington 99164-6414 U.S.A.
WSU's Disclaimer & Freedom of Expression Policy
Page updated November 10, 2014